Piotr, SAFe was developed by aggregating techniques used by companies that have struggled to be agile. We can find better alternatives by looking at companies that are naturally agile, such as Google and Amazon. These companies use a technique that I call MAXOS — MAtriX Of Services. They chop their software into services and microservices. Then they assign teams to run continuous delivery of changes for a set of services. These teams do not need to coordinate on a cadence. They resolve dependency problems by investing heavily in continuous integration. The automated tests in continuous integration will find dependency problems between teams. Teams don’t have to fit into programs, which allows each team to support multiple products, including new products. Strong product managers to weave these services together into profitable and usable products.
I have written about this approach in several places. There is an ebook chapter about large scale continuous delivery. I covered strategy in “Meet the Apex Competitors”. Another blog article describes the product management approach. I think the most interesting conclusion comes in “We found the silver bullet”. It explains why the approach works so well for very large projects.